In the year 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte had made it: with the help of the military, he had dissolved the Directory and established a provisional government. As First Consul (1799-1804), Napoleon himself had appointed all officers, civil servants and judges, as well as the 80 members of the senate. Subsequently he had his military regime approved of by referendum. On his coins, Napoleon appeared almost like a private citizen, however. To be sure, he had gold and silver coins minted with his portrait and thus prolonged the series of coins of the French kings. But he refrained from all insiginia of power - at least in the beginning.