From the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont, the movement for a united Italian national state gathered momentum after the middle of the 19th century. After military successes by Giuseppe Garibaldi in the South and the government troops in central Italy, plebiscites confirmed the integration of several Italian regions into the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont. Victor Emmanuel II adopted the title of "king of Italy" in March, 1861 (until 1878). Since Rome and its surroundings belonged to the Papal State, Florence became the provisionary capital. The State of Italy began to issue national coins that same year in Florence, Bologna, Milan, Turin and Naples. Legal tender was the lira, which had already been the currency in several of the individual Italian territories.