Defensive fights on the borders of the Empire marked the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Maurice (582-602). The emperor was mostly successful. Yet his campaigns against Persians, Slavs, Avars, and Lombards drained the imperial treasury. To plug the hole, Maurice had to raise the taxes, which in turn did not please his subjects. In the 20st year of his reign dissatisfaction had grown to such an extent that his troops revolted. The mutinous soldiers rallied behind Phocas, one of their junior officers. Maurice fled, was captured and executed together with his sons. With the death of Maurice in the year 602, the era of Classical Antiquity came to an end. The next four decades were marked by turmoil that shattered the Empire and permanently and thoroughly changed society and politics. The Middle Ages began.