At the end of the 7th century (696) Abd al-Malik, Caliph of the Umayyads, enacted a new coin law. Henceforth his own coins should circulate in his realm, instead of the coins from foreign rulers. Also from now on money should be from gold and silver, whereas before there had only been silver coins. Abd al-Malik would issue his own coins, and they would feature Arabic inscriptions. Abd al-Malik's new coins spread into every corner of his territories and carried his message: Abd al-Malik, the Caliph, is the central power in the realm (685-705). Besides, the new coins facilitated collecting taxes and paying officials and soldiers.