In 1835 thousands of white South African farmers packed their belongings on covered wagons and set off towards the north with their families and slaves. In 1842, they founded the Orange Free State north of the Orange River, and in 1852 the Transvaal republic was established. There, the Boers lived according to their beliefs – as self-supporters who had their lands and cattle worked by slaves. White and black areas of life were strictly separated. Religious costumes were carefully observed, and ethics and morals were highly valued. In the 1870s the Boer government in the Transvaal republic had for the first time made plans to issue its own coins. However, the first coin series of the Transvaal republic was issued only in 1892. The issue of coins, from pennies to pounds, took place until the outbreak of the Second Boer War in 1899. The obverse of the Transvaal coins bore the bust of President Kruger, also known as Oom (Uncle) Paul, and the legend ZUID AFRIKAANSCHE REPUBLIEK.