The spade coins of Emperor Wang Mang had face values from 200 to 1000 copper coins. This piece bears the inscription "one spade worth 1000" – meaning 1000 round copper coins, the so-called wu shu. While the spade coins circulated as higher denominations, the round coins were used as small change. Coins from 1 to 100 wu shu existed. Besides, additional forms of money such as cowry shells, gold nuggets or silver ingots were in circulation.