After centuries of disintegration, China was once again united in 589 AD. After he had defeated the emperors of the Zhou and Chen dynasties, the victorious Yang Jian founded the Sui dynasty and ascended to the imperial Chinese throne under the name of Wen Ti (589-604). After the long period of chaos and turmoil, the coins in circulation were not in the best conditions any more. Counterfeits were common. Wen Ti therefore withdrew all old coins from circulation and replaced them with new wu shu-coins. The use of old issues was forbidden. Where the old coins were used despite the prohibition, the responsible administrates were fined with forfeits up to half a year's salary.